When writing the previous post, Exterminators Week 5 - Pull Requests, I started brainstorming ways you could slice up your work into pull requests. It seemed like a fun list so I have decided to share them with you. Enjoy.
I have been having too much fun creating a flurry of pull requests. It has been a great way to break down my thoughts into small shippable pieces. I am still trying to find the “goldilocks” number and size for my pull requests.
If you are stuck thinking about ways to break down a large feature try using this list. They can help you find ways to slice up your work so you can ship more easily. These helped me shrink what would otherwise have been massive pull requests down to more manageable sizes.
WARNING: There is such thing as TOO MANY pull requests. If you follow all of these ideas you might find your belongings immersed in Jello or suddenly missing.
1. Start with Tests
Create a pull request with only tests. If the tests affect multiple functional areas consider making a pull request for each area. This works phenomenally well with legacy code where starting by adding tests can help you better understand the code and establish the current behaviour.
You might find as you keep biting off different pieces you have even more tests you want to add which don’t go well with the other changes you are making. Not a problem. Slice off another pull request for the new tests and keep on cookin’!
2. Share the Prototype!
You could quickly program a small prototype and share it with others to get feedback. I would not recommend merging or trying to ship your prototype, but showing it to others and hearing what they have to say about the general direction is invaluable.
3. Early Testing
Is there something risky you could complete early or partially? Could you finish just enough to test out a fundamental building block? You can carve off functionality you want to test separately into its own pull request(s). Early testing can validate the work you are doing before your solution becomes more complicated. Rapid testing with pull requests can help isolate defects by reducing the amount of code that could be responsible.
4. Highlighting the Difference
Particularly confusing, complicated or dangerous changes can benefit from their own pull requests. Reviewing delicate changes independently will help reviewers focus on the changes being made and go deeper into the code than if it was mixed in with other changes. The most extreme version of this would be to create a pull request for a single particularly interesting commit.
5. Single Responsibility
Any update with a single purpose is a good candidate for a standalone pull request. Focusing on one thing makes reviewing such pull requests easier and generally makes them smaller.
A special case of this would be a pull request containing only code deletions. Deleting code can be safer and is much easier to review than when code is added/removed throughout a single pull request.
6. Setting Up
Sometimes there is more setup than expected which could be split into separate pull requests. You could have a pull request for interfaces you want to use. Adding new tables or data access to allow for the new feature you are doing.
Anticipating future design constraints can be a slippery slope and lead to designing for every possible use case. Pick the most important thing, create a pull request implementing it, ship the pull request, repeat. Don’t over think it.
7. Refactoring Alone
Do refactoring as a separate pull request. Some refactoring can get messy and touch more code than you planned to affect, i.e. any renaming for popular classes. If these are mixed in with other updates they can hide what is really important about the other changes.
8. New Code, Old Code, Cut Over
Place as much of the new code as possible into separate pull requests. When you are ready add more pull requests to integrate the new code with the old code. You can think of this overall strategy as combining Setting Up, Refactoring Alone and Highlighting the Difference together to theme a series of pull requests.
9. The Iceberg (a.k.a Keystoning)
Like the New Code, Old Code, Cut Over and Setting Up, you can begin by making pull requests for parts of the code not yet visible to users. Build up the functionality in small pull requests and when you are finally ready, add the UI to hold everything together (like the keystone on a bridge). This works great when most of the code is not visible (like the other 90% of most icebergs) to the end users and can be slowly built up over time.
You can combine this approach with feature flags to release the code into the wild and then only turn it on for specific users/clients. This is a great way to separate the release and deployment of new features. When you are fully confident the new features are ready you can enable them as needed. After you have proven the feature behaves as expected you can then remove the feature flag.
Top to Bottom
Take a full slice from top to bottom for a simple change. This pull request will help your reviewers by showing them all the layers affected. Doing a top to bottom change can be hard without getting too big. It will work better if you can keep the changes as a small wedge within the code that you gradually expand. If you can make the first pull request smaller or only affect part of the functionality it may be easier to get started and/or review the code.
11. Different Repos, Different Reviews
If your project is broken up across different repositories, binaries or services then each of the code changes should be performed using different pull requests. This is probably the norm for most tools, but sometimes your tools will allow you to combine disjointed components together into one mega code review. Don’t do it! If they are independent enough to be in different repositories, binaries or services then they deserve different pull requests.
12. The Final Once Over
If you have done many small pull requests up until this point it can be worth skimming over all the changes and seeing if anything else should be done. If there is more that can be improved, use another pull request to make it happen. Repeat as needed.
I hope you liked this list and try it out soon. What other ways do you use to break up large changes?
I would like to thank my coworker and friend Travis for discussing this post with me. He helped me organize the ideas and brainstorm a bit. Thanks Buddy.